Sodium Hyaluronate

Hyaluronan: full spectrum

According to several studies, hyaluronan molecules with a specific spectrum of molecular weights in contrast to usual single-weight active agents are able to initiate specific cellular responses in skin and offer an innovative perspective for targeted skin care.


Hyaluronan and tissue homoeostasis

Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular polysaccharide with a molecular weight of minimum

1000 kDa (kilo-Dalton). It is present in the epidermis and above all in the dermis; in both skin layers its amount is nearly 50 % of the total quantity in the body. The rest is found mainly in the extracellular matrix in the connective tissue.

It can bind large quantities of water and builds a gel matrix that supports the epidermal surface.

It is an essential factor for tissue homoeostasis and is able to react with the receptors on cell surfaces (CD44). The molecular weight is important for the regulatory effects. For example, low-molecular hyaluronic acid stimulates inflammation mediators, while high-molecular hyaluronan molecules do the opposite. Low-molecular hyaluronan has stimulation effects under stress conditions, while high-molecular hyaluronan calms in the homoeostatic phase.

Consequently, a specific spectrum of molecular weights will make better use of the positive synergies of the hyaluronan types and allow to adjust the effects more precisely.

A connecting point for hyaluronan is the CD44 receptor, a transmembrane glycoprotein. The resulting interactions are important for many mechanisms of the physiology of skin cells, like keratinocytes or fibroblasts. Cells with the surface receptors detect differences in their local surrounding, e.g., disturbances of homoeostasis, and can trigger regulating measures. In that connection, the sizes of the surrounding hyaluronans are important.


Hyaluronan – CD44 interactions

Smaller hyaluronan fragments with a molecular weight of approx..10 kDa bind reversibly,

larger irreversibly to CD44, because these probably simultaneously attach to several receptors.

Hyaluronan molecules with low molecular weight have physiochemical properties different from molecules with high molecular weight. In case of stress, e.g., wounds, oxidation or bacteria, high-molecular hyaluronan molecules are divided into small fragments which are perceived as danger signals with pro-inflammatory potential. High-molecular hyaluronan molecules block the pro-inflammatory effects and regulate to keep up the homoeostasis.


Full hyaluronan spectrum

The different effects of low- and high-molecular hyaluronan striving for synergy could not be used by current hyaluronates in cosmetics. The compound derived from bio-fermentation by bacteria had limited molecular weights and often differed already in one bulk.

A new biotechnological procedure yields specific molecular weights with narrow distribution near the mean of10 kDa to minimum 3000 kDa, thus offering the full hyaluronan spectrum.

The hyaluronan molecules with full spectrum at the same time have a specific spectrum of molecular weights that are precisely adapted to certain physiological states of skin – homoeostasis or stress.

Thanks to the optimized interaction between hyaluronan surrounding and CD44-receptors, stressed skin responds more adequately because it is has an improved perception of its micro-surrounding.

Active ingredients composed not only of one hyaluronan length but include a spectrum of molecular weights – like skin itself – are suitable to support specific biological mechanisms. They are obtained by controlling the degradation parameters of the bio-fermentation process.

The active ingredients are selected on the base of a specific molecular weight spectrum and their actual effect (not because of a single weight). For the selection in-vivo data and screening tests are used to achieve specific cell responses and precise cosmetic effects.

Hyaluronan active agents with full molecular weight spectrum feature targeted maxima which reproduce the spectrums observed in skin models. They show broadened and multiplied maxima in the distribution.


Working mechanism of hyaluronan with full spectrum

The working mechanism is based on the interaction of the hyaluronan matrix with the CD44 receptors. Tests showed that the cell reacts more adequately because of the improved perception of its micro-surrounding. The targeted cellular responses allow optimized skincare effects.


Some examples:


Hyaluronan with full spectrum and peaks at 10 kDa

The full spectrum hyaluronan with narrow distribution near 10 kDa is ideal for dry skin lacking elasticity. It triggers immediate hydration and constant improvement of skin’s moisture level as can be proved with the corneometer.

It activates skin by accelerated cell renewal and improved synthesis of protein and elastin and regulated skin enzymes like collagenase and elastase.

It binds reversibly to CD44 and penetrates skin better than usual hyaluronic compounds.


Hyaluronan with full spectrum and focus on low molecular weights

The hyaluronan is ideal to support wound healing and skin regeneration because it reproduces a stressed surrounding which induces the adequate skin response.

The focus is on low molecular weights, however, higher than 10 kDa.

That way it achieves a perfect balance of skin penetration and skin activation.

The hyaluronan binds irreversibly to cell membrane receptors CD44 and induces the reactivation of cell metabolism to raise skin’s resistance against environmental stress.

Skin looks fresher.

Skin is more resistant against mechanical stressors, e.g., shaving, and external factors.

In vitro, the stimulating effect on wound healing of endothelia cells in cultures was proved.


Hyaluronan with full spectrum and broad-spread peaks

The hyaluronan with broad molecular weight spectrum is ideal for long-term ant-aging effects and mature skin.

Specific peaks of molecular weights are effective for wrinkle reduction, increasing skin’s moisture and elasticity, smoothing skin’s surface, strengthening skin’s barrier, decreasing redness and flakiness, reduction of harmful oxidation.

The hyaluronan has a clear focus on the physiology of homoeostasis or stress.

The reduction of wrinkle volume could be proved in vivo.


Hyaluronan with complex full spectrum

The distribution of molecular weights ofis similar to the complexity of the full spectrum of fractions working in synergy in skin.

It improves skin’s appearance. Skin looks smoother, better hydrated and restructured.

In addition, this hyaluronan molecule can be used as a vehicle for lipophile and hydrophile active ingredients.

In vivo tests proved the reduction of the number of wrinkles.




Innovative technologies allow the specific use of the full spectrum of hyaluronan. The weak spots of current hyaluronic active agents with limited or differing molecular weights can be excluded. Molecular weight spectrums of hyaluronan with specific maxima similar to natural conditions of corresponding skin states are a way to fine-tuned skincare.